Harlem was appointed OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media on 18 July 2017. Prior to this position and since April 2014, he was French Minister of State for European Affairs, attached to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development. Harlem was a Member of the European Parliament for three consecutive terms from 1999 to 2014. He was a member of the Committee on Industry, Energy and Research, the Employment and Social Affairs and the Committee on Development. From 2012 to 2014, he served as First Secretary of the French Socialist Party. In October 1984, Harlem founded the French NGO “SOS Racisme”, whose objective is to fight against racism, anti-Semitism and all forms of discrimination. He was awarded the Olof Palme Prize (Sweden, 1990), the Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix (Greece, 2016), and the Knight Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany, 2018).